False Adhd

“So far, I have identified in the scientific literature 257 pathologies and/or conditions which mime ADHD; and though already significant, it is not an ultimate list. Even wanting to give the existence of ADHD the benefit of the doubt, we can affirm that such diagnosis is potentially wrong in the absence of a prior verification of whether it is a different pathology “miming” it, that is, presenting the same symptoms and equating the diagnostic criterion for ADHD. If I cure an allergy generating hyperactivity (which is its symptom) as if it were a psychiatric hyperactivity, I do not solve the child’s problem, and I expose him to serious dangers because of the collateral effects of the psychotropic drug. An accurate differential diagnosis allows to discover the true cause. Maybe this is why the protocols of the National Health Institute (ISS) and of the Italian Pharmaceuticals Agency (AIFA) are so defective regarding differential diagnosis. A deficient differential diagnosis generates a double damage: firstly, the true cause is not identified, therefore the person is deprived of his/her right to diagnosis and cure. Secondly, powerful and dangerous psychotropic drugs are prescribed, drugs which serve solely – quoting the renown psychiatrist and professor Emilia Costa – as a “chemical straightjacket”; which is, also, an abuse in the prescription of drugs. This happens all over the world, Italy included: differential diagnoses are grossly defective. Their high number, and the fact that these symptoms manifest themselves in case of the most diverse diseases and conditions, clearly shows us how such symptoms appear anytime there is a serious physical and psychological suffering or severe adverse conditions. They do not characterize any disease in themselves: for instance, the attention deficit is the first, generic and basic reaction of our organism to an unease. There are many researches on sleep disorders which also involve electromagnetic pollution, nutritional and family issues, tics and compulsions, learning disabilities, pervasive development disorders, disorders concerning pregnancy or genetics. Summarizing ,it is scientifically ridiculous to group all these hypotheses under the umbrella of a new disease…” (quote from an interview with Claudio Ajmone, psychotherapist and expert on ADHD). Below, a list of “false ADHD” identified by the international scientific literature while here you can find  Abstracts of scientific research at the basis of the list of diseases.


Psychological issues:

1. Sexual and physical abuse
2. Separation anxiety
3. General anxiety
4. Children prodigies
5. Spoilt children
6. Undisciplined children
7. Bulimia
8. Depression
9. Post-traumatic stress disorder
10. Provocative oppositive disorder
11. Adaptation disorder with symptoms of conduct disorder
12. Conduct disorder
13. Mood disorder
14. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Learning disabilities:

15. Dyscalculia
16. Dyspraxia (DSM-IV), Developmental coordination disorder (ICD-10)
17. Reading disorder
18. Dysgraphia or Disorder of written expression

Pervasive developmental disorder: 

19. Infantile autism
20. Rett syndrome
21. Childhood disintegrative disorder
22. Asperger syndrome
23. Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (including the ICD-10 atypical autism)
24. Hyperactive syndrome associated with mental retardation and stereotypic movement (ICD-10)

25. Enuresis
26. Encopresis
27.  Social Phobia
28. Gambling

Situational, environmental, familiar, scholarly issues, quality of life:

29. Conflicts in the family
30. Lack of care


31. Dissociations
32. Bipolar disorder
33. Personality disorders
34. Mania
35. Schizophrenia

36. Environmental mental retardation
37. Tourette syndrome
38. Tics

Medical pathologies:

39. Post-traumatic subclinical seizure
40. Akathisia
41. Allergies
42. Anemia
43. Abscesses of the frontal lobe
44. Bronchial asthma
45. Cardiac diseases and dysfunctions
46. Celiac disease
47. Cerebral cists
48. Chorea
49. Precocious diabetes
50. Migraine
51. Epilepsy
52. Head wounds and damages
53. Fibromyalgia


54. CoA-transferase of the 3-oxoacids deficiency
55. Primary disorder of vigilance (Weinberg syndrome)
56. Congenital or juvenile myotonic dystrophy
57. Hemophilia
58. Phenylketonuria
59. Incremented cellular nucleotidase activity
60. Y chromosome length
61. Wilson disease
62. Trisomy 17 mosaicism
63. Aarskog-Scott syndrome
64. Angelman syndrome
65. Chromosome 8 ring syndrome
66. Dubowitz syndrome
67. Down syndrome
68. Smith-Magenis syndrome
69. Prader-Willi syndrome
70. Rett Syndrome
71. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome
72. X-fragile syndrome (Martin Bell syndrome)
73. Voluntary or involuntary substances inhaling


74. Adenoiditis
75. Candida Albicans
76. Viral encephalitis
77. Enterovirus 71 (EV71)
78. Meningitis
79. Tonsillitis
80. Infection by Streptococcus beta-hemolytic

81. Sensory integration dysfunction
82. Electrical hypersensitivity
83. Hyperthyroidism
84. Hypothyroidism
85. Hypoglycemia
86. Hypoxia (congenital cardiac disease, sleep disorder, asthma, chronic ventilatory failure, breathing instability)
87. Wounds of the cortical cholinergic system in the basal portion of the front brain
88. Systemic lupus erythematosus
89. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease
90. Metabolism disorders
91. Carbon monoxide poisoning
92. Obesity
93. Otitis media
94. Intestinal parasites infestation
95. Childbirth complications
96. Unfavorable perinatal factors
97. Porphyria
98. Prenatal factors (mother’s bad health and malnutrition, drug abuse)
99. Spinal problems
100. Biologic and genetic mental retardation
101. Chronic kidney disease
102. Restless Legs Syndrome
103. Chronic fatigue syndrome
104. Sleep disorders
105. Complement system (shortage of defense proteins against viral and bacterial infections in the blood, for instance protein C4B)
106. Toxins (exposure to)


107. Incipient cerebral
108. Tumors of the frontal lobe
109. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour
110. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (Von Recklinghausen disease)
111. Neurofibromatosis type 2

 112. Hearing (central hearing processes disorder)

Vascular cerebral:
113. Lenticulostriate vasculopathy


114. Visual acuity far
115. Visual acuity near
116. Convergence
117. Accommodative dysfunction
118. Pursuit
119. Visual-motor integration
120. Hyperopia
121. Stereopsis
122. Color vision

123. Physiologic vivacity

Psychotropic substances:

124. D-Lysergic acid (LSD)
125. Alcohol
126. Caffeine
127. Cocaine
128. Glue and aerosol (inhalation)
129. Heroin
130. Phencyclidine (PCP)
131. Marijuana
132. Nicotine


Amino acids deficiency:

133. Phenylalanine
134. Tyrosine
135. Tryptophan
136. Histidine
137. Isoleucine

138. Calcium deficiency
139. Food preservatives
140. Synthetic food pigments
141. Wrong diet
142. Iron deficiency
143. Iodine deficiency
144. Iodine magnesium (Mg2+) deficiency
145. Malnutrition
146. High manganese levels
147. Magnesium deficiency
148. Omega-3 deficiency
149. Copper deficiency
150. Vitamins excess
151. Vitamin B deficiency
152. Zinc deficiency

Unfavorable situations:

153. Fatigue
154. Chemotherapy against cancer
155. Physical pain
156. Hunger

Medicines (active ingredients):

157. Over-the-counter hypoallergenics containing antihistamines or stimulants
158. Antibiotics: they often cause tiredness, a certain number of antibiotics has been associated with mental abnormalities, for instance: cephalosporin
159. Sinusitis: over-the-counter medicines containing antihistamines or stimulants
160. Colds: over-the-counter medicines containing antihistamines or stimulants
161. Sleeping pills compromising attention and vigilance


162. Antihistamines
163. Ephedrine
164. Pseudoephedrine
165. Theophylline


166. Citalopram
167. Escitalopram
168. Fluoxetine
169. Fluvoxamine
170. Paroxetine
171. Sertralina


172. Carbamazepina
173. Divalproex sodium
174. Phenytoin
175. Gabapentin


176. Haloperidol
177. Chlorpromazine
178. Fluphenazine
179. Olanzapine
180. Prochlorperazine
181. Quetiapine
182. Risperidone
183. Thioridazine
184. Thioxanthene


185. Amobarbital
186. Butabarbital
187. Phenobarbital
188. Pentobarbital
189. Secobarbital

CNS stimulants, including the very medicines used for the cure of ADHD:

190. Desoxyephedrine
191. Dextroamphetamine
192. Methylphenidate
193. Pemoline

Minor downers, depressants, sleeping pills:

194. Alprazolam
195. Clonazepam
196. Chlordiazepoxide
197. Diazepam
198. Flurazepam
199. Lorazepam
200. Triazolam

Mood stabilizers:

201. Lithium carbonate
202. Verapamil

Environmental pollution:

203. Movement (lack of exercise)
204. New technologies (intensive and/or precocious computer use, videogames, TV);  steroids
205. 4-chlorodehydromethyltestosterone
206. Undecylenate boldenone
207. Fluoxymesterone
208. Mesterolone
209. Methandrostenolone/ Metandienone
210. Enanthate metenolone
211. Mibolerone
212. Nandrolone decanoate
213. Nandrolone phenylpropionate
214. Oxymetholone
215. Oxandrolone
216. Stanozolol
217. Trenbolone
218. Testosterone (variously esterified)
219. Prednisone

220. Aluminum (high levels)
221. DDT
222. Fluoride
223. PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyl
224. Lead (moderate or high levels)
225. Mercury (high levels)

The following list, adapted from Table 2 of the guidelines elaborated by the Infantile and Juvenile Neuropsychiatry Society (Società di Neuropsichiatria Infantile e Adolescenza – SINPIA) and adopted by our High Institute for Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità – ISS), indicates the pathologies on which a differential diagnosis is performed.

Psychiatric diseases

Opposite provocative disorder

Behavioural disorder

Mood disorders

Bipolar disorder

Anxiety disorders

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Adjustment disorder with symptoms of behavioral disorder

Tourette syndrome  – multiple tics

Personality disorders

Specific learning disorders

Mental retardation

Pervasive developmental disorder

Neurological disorders and medical pathologies

Senses disorders (deafness, vision deficits)

Pharmaceuticals’ side effects (antihistamines, beta-agonists, benzodiazepines, phenobarbital)


Thyroidal pathologies

Abscesses, tumors of the frontal lobe

Cranial trauma

Substance abuse

Lead intoxication

Developmental diseases

Physiologic vivacity

Situational, environmental, familiar problems

Inadequate support at school (mild retardation or, on the contrary, peculiar intellectual vivacity with “standard” school programs)

Altered environmental, social, familiar support (chaotic environment, divorce, abandonment, abuse)

As can be noted, the records are significantly reduced in comparison with the previous list. This implies a huge risk of wrong diagnosis, and of the administration of strong and dangerous psychotropic drugs to children not suffering from ADHD. The genetic theory of ADHD actually diverts doctors from investigating the real causes of behavioral and learning disorders, with great damage to these patients.